«Traditional Means of Payment»

Frankish Empire, Charles II the Bald, Denarius (Pfennig)

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Frankish Empire, Charles II the Bald, Denarius (Pfennig) (obverse) Frankish Empire, Charles II the Bald, Denarius (Pfennig) (reverse)

In 864 with the Edict of Pîtres, King Charles the Bald (843-877) tried to modify Carolingian coinage. Along with regulations about the punishment for counterfeiting, the number of coin types was reduced, and the control of the mints tightened. In addition, Charles replaced the traditional inscription naming individual rulers by the pious, but more impersonal D(e)I GRATIA REX: King by the grace of God.

This denier bears the new inscription DI GRATIA REX around the Karolus monogram. The coin was struck in the town of Orléans, as the inscription AVRELIANIS CIVITAS on the reverse indicates.

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